Handouts Part 1 :
Handouts Part 2:
America's ability to engage in a second war with Britain spawned a period of national unity and pride throughout the nation. The Federalist party, weakened for their opposition to the War of 1812, faded as a national political party. James Monroe was elected President of the United States after being virtually unopposed during his election bid.
“Who would not be an American?” Such was the feeling that swept the nation in the wake of Andrew Jackson’s victory at New Orleans and peace with Great Britain. The symbols and heroes of the War of 1812 did not soon fade, as seen here in a portrayal of a Fourth of July celebration in 1819. The leftmost tent has a U.S. flag above a portrait of George Washington above a depiction of a naval battle of the War of 1812 (with slogan "Don't give up the Ship"). The rightmost tent has a flag of the state of Pennsylvania (motto "Virtue, Liberty, Independence") above a depiction of "The Battle of New Orleans". The painting brims with patriotism and a spirit of unity in a neoclassical design.
Congressional Leaders John C Calhoun (SC): Supported state sovereignty, the idea that each state should be able to determine the conditions of slavery in their respective states. Daniel Webster (MA): Supported the policy that all future state additions to the union be admitted as free states. Henry Clay (KY): Known as the "Great Compromiser", he represented Western interests and attempted to negotiate sectional disputes between the Northern and Southern faction in Congress.
The Missouri Compromise: The Missouri Compromise was an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted. At the time, the United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free.
The Monroe Doctrine warned the rest of the world, especially Europe, that the Western Hemisphere was to be left alone. It also said that the United States would leave other countries alone. The Monroe Doctrine showed that the United States now saw itself as a world power, and it would protect its interests in the Western Hemisphere.
A satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy the Bank of the United States and its support among state banks. Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states. Jackson (on the left) raises a cane marked "Veto" and says, "Biddle thou Monster Avaunt!! avaount I say! or by the Great Eternal I'll cleave thee to the earth, aye thee and thy four and twenty satellites. Matty if thou art true...come on. if thou art false, may the venomous monster turn his dire fang upon thee..." Van Buren: "Well done General, Major Jack Downing, Adams, Clay, well done all. I dislike dissentions beyond every thing, for it often compels a man to play a double part, were it only for his own safety. Policy, policy is my motto, but intrigues I cannot countenance." Downing (dropping his axe): "Now now you nasty varmint, be you imperishable? I swan Gineral that are beats all I reckon, that's the horrible wiper wot wommits wenemous heads I guess..." The largest of the heads is president of the Bank Nicholas Biddle's, which wears a top hat labeled "Penn" (i.e. Pennsylvania) and "$35,000,000." This refers to the rechartering of the Bank by the Pennsylvania legislature in defiance of the adminstration's efforts to destroy it.
A pro-Jackson satire applauding the President's September 1833 order for the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States. The combined opposition to this move from Bank president Nicholas Biddle, Senate Whigs led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay, and the pro-Bank press are ridiculed. On the right, Jackson, cheered on by Major Jack Downing, holds aloft an "Order for the Removal of Public Money." Jackson: "Major Jack Downing. I must act in this case with energy and decision, you see the downfall of the party engine and corrupt monopoly!!" Downing: "Hurrah! General! if this don't beat skunkin, I'm a nigger, only see that varmint Nick how spry he is, he runs along like a Weatherfield Hog with an onion in his mouth." From the document emanate lightning bolts which topple the columns and pediment of the Bank, which crash down amidst fleeing public figures and Whig editors. Around them are strewn various newspapers and sheets with "Salary $6,000" and "Printing expenses "$80,000" printed on them. Henry Clay (at left, fallen): "Help me up! Webster! or I shall lose my stakes." Daniel Webster (far left): "There is a tide in the affairs of men, as Shakespeare says, so my dear CLay, look out for yourself." Nicholas Biddle, with the head and hoofs of an ass or demon, runs to the left: "It is time for me to resign my presidency." Two men flee with sacks of "fees." These fugitives may be newspaper editors Mordecai Manuel Noah and James Watson Webb, advocates of the Bank accused of being in the employ of Biddle.
Jackson is seated in a collapsing chair, with the "Altar of Reform" toppling next to him, and rats scurrying at his feet. The rats are (left to right): Secretary of War John H. Eaton, Secretary of the Navy John Branch, Secretary of State Martin Van Buren, and Treasury Secretary Samuel D. Ingham. Jackson's spectacles are pushed up over his forehead, and his foot is planted firmly on the tail of the Van Buren rat. "Resignations" fill the air behind him, and a pillar marked "Public confidence in the stability of this admistration [sic]" falls to the left. There seem to be at least two versions of the print, not counting Clay's ".00001." The present version seems to be a close but inferior copy of the print by the same title attributed to Edward W. Clay by both Murrell and Davison. The latter has the legend "Washington 1831" printed in the lower margin. Davison quotes from an April 25 entry in John Quincy Adams'diary saying that "Two thousand copies of this print have been sold in Philadelphia this day. Ten thousand copies have been struck off, and will all be disposed of within a fortnight." It is unclear, however, whether Adams was referring to a version of "The Rats leaving a Falling House" or to Clay's ".00001" which was produced and published in Philadelphia and deposited for copyright on May 5.
This is an image published in Harper’s Weekly and drawn by Thomas Nast, a famous political satirist, in 1830. It is called “The Great White Father” and portrays a stately President Andrew Jackson holding and towering above several American Indians (Trafzer 2009). The relationship between the United States Government and the American Indians could aptly be described as ignorant paternalism. Jackson vigorously pursued the policy of removal that forced eastern Indian nations to move west of the Mississippi in the 1830s. Opponents of removal mocked Jackson's professed compassion for Native Americans by depicting him as a paternal figure comforting Indian "children."
A half circle of male figures beginning with Step 1. “A glass with a Friend” up and over semi-circle to Step 9 “Death by suicide.” Half circle bottom center with an image of a weeping woman walking with a child. Steps: 1. A glass with a Friend 2. A glass to keep the cold out 3. A glass too much 4. Drunk and riotous 5. The Summit attained Jolly Companions A confirmed Drunkard 6. Poverty and Disease 7. Forsaken by Friends 8. Desperation and crime 9. Death by suicide Currier & Ives produced at least thirty prints that discussed the Temperance Movement, an organized effort to encourage moderation or abstinence from alcoholic beverages. New York established a temperance union in 1808 and by 1830, 6,000 temperance groups had been established throughout the United States. The movement addressed the effects of uncontrolled drinking, almost always by men, on the people in their lives, especially their wives and children. In this print, the man is shown through nine periods in his life. At the beginning, he shares a drink with a friend. His life deteriorates as he consumes more and more alcohol and he finally ends his life due to the problems brought on by drinking. His wife and child, seen in the middle of the arch, weep as they walk away from their burning home. These types of prints were especially popular with women and those working to improve the moral climate of the country. The political Cartoon deals with the Temperance movement that we see start in the 2nd Great Awakening.
As the man in the center of the image reads the paper, the characters around him register varying degrees of interest, concern, and fear. The war had enormous political implications for the entire nation. The end of the war would mean the annexation of extensive lands that would become California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and parts of Colorado. In addition, the country faced a decision about which of the new territories would be slave states and which would be free. All of the men assembled on the porch would have been able to participate in the decision-making process by voting for their congressional representatives. Standing outside the porch, however, are three figures who would not have been able to take part in this process—a black man and his daughter near the steps and a white woman leaning out of the window. Their lives will be affected by the outcome of the war, and they listen intently to the news, but, unable to vote, they have no say in the political arena. Significantly, they stand outside of the shelter of the American Hotel’s porch, and therefore do not receive its protection. Woodville gives the viewer a clue about where his sympathies lie through his vivid characterization of the black father and daughter. The expression on the man’s face reflects a heartbreaking mixture of eagerness and apprehension—eagerness perhaps about the possibilities for a new life in the West, apprehension about the potential expansion of slavery. His daughter’s threadbare shift would have elicited a sympathetic reaction from Woodville’s contemporary viewers. Furthermore, the two figures together wear the colors red, white, and blue, underscoring the point that they are American, albeit Americans of reduced rights, privileges, and circumstances. - David B. Dearinger, Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design (Manchester, VT: Hudson Hills Press, 2004).
Crash Course #10: Thomas Jefferson & His Democracy (Period 4 pt. 1)
Crash Course #11: The War of 1812 (Period 4 pt. 1)
Crash Course #12: The Market Revolution (Period 4 pt. 2)
Crash Course #14: The Age of Andrew Jackson (Period 4 pt. 3)
Crash Course #17: War & Expansion (Period 4 pt. 4)